In 1705, Emperor Peter I of Russia instituted a beard tax. Those who paid the tax were required to carry a 'beard token'. This was a copper or silver token inscribed with 'the tax has been taken' and 'the beard is a superfluous burden'.
- Higher education contribution scheme (HECS)
A system that supplemented funding of the Australian education system. It was incorporated with other loans into the Higher education loan program (HELP) on 1 January 2005.
- Higher education loan program (HELP)
The Australian Government contributes towards the education of eligible students by funding government-supported places at universities. Eligible students may be able to study now and pay later by using a HELP loan to pay their student contribution.